William Blake's Jerusalem Explained.

Chapter 3: Plate 65

To decide Two Worlds with a great decision: a World of Mercy. and
A World of Justice: the World of Mercy for Salvation
To cast Luvah into the Wrath. and Albion into the Pity
In the Two Contraries of Humanity & in the Four Regions.

For in the depths of Albions bosom in the eastern heaven,
They sound the clarions strong! they chain the howling Captives:
They cast the lots into the helmet: they give the oath of blood in Lambeth
They vote the death of Luvah, & they naild him to Albions Tree in Bath:
They staind him with poisonous blue, they inwove him in cruel roots
To die a death of Six thousand years bound round with vegetation
The sun was black & the moon rolld a useless globe thro Britain:

Then left the Sons of Urizen the plow & harrow, the loom
The hammer & the chisel, & the rule & compasses; from London fleeing
They forg'd the sword on Cheviot, the chariot of war & the battle-ax,
The trumpet fitted to mortal battle, & the flute of summer in Annandale
And all the Arts of Life, they changd into the Arts of Death in Albion.
The hour-glass contemnd because its simple workmanship,
Was like the workmanship of the plowman, & the water wheel,
That raises water into cisterns broken & burnd with fire:
Because its workmanship, was like the workmanship of the shepherd,
And in their stead, intricate wheels invented, wheel without wheel:
To perplex youth in their outgoings, & to bind to labours in Albion
Of day & night the myriads of eternity that they may grind
And polish brass &  ron hour after hour laborious task;
Kept ignorant of its use, that they might spend the days of wisdom
In sorrowful drudgery, to obtain a scanty pittance of bread:
In ignorance to view a small portion & think that All.
And call it Demonstration: blind to all the simple rules of life. 

Now: now the battle rages round thy tender limbs O Vala.
Now smile among thy bitter tears: now put on all thy beauty
Is not the wound of the sword sweet: & the broken bone delightful?
Wilt thou now smile among the scythes when the wounded groan in the field
We were carried away in thousands from London; & in tens
Of thousands from Westminster & Marybone in ships closd up:
Chaind hand & foot, compelled to fight under the iron whips
Of our captains; fearing our officers more than the enemy.
Lift up thy blue eyes Vala & put on thy sapphire shoes:
O melancholy Magdalen behold the morning over Malden break:
Gird on thy flaming zone, descend into the sepulcher of Canterbury.
Scatter the blood from thy golden brow, the tears from thy silver locks:
Shake off the waters from thy wings! & the dust from thy white garments
Remember all thy feigned terrors on the secret couch of Lambeths Vale
When the sun rose in glowing morn. with arms of mighty hosts
Marching to battle who was wont to rise with Urizens harps
Girt as a sower with his seed to scatter life abroad over Albion!
Arise O Vala: bring the bow of Urizen: bring the swift arrows of light.
How rag'd the golden horses of Urizen, compelld to the chariot of love!
Compelld to leave the plow to the ox, to snuff up the winds of desolation
To trample the corn fields in boastful neighings: this is no gentle harp
This is no warbling brook, nor shadow of a mirtle tree:
But blood and wounds and dismal cries and shadows of the oak:
And hearts laid open to the light, by the broad grizly sword:
And bowels hid in hammerd steel rip'd quivering on the ground.
Call forth thy smiles of soft deceit: call forth thy cloudy tears:
We hear thy sighs in trumpets shrill when morn shall blood renew.

So sang the Spectre Sons of Albion round Luvahs Stone of Trial:
Mocking and deriding at the writhings of their Victim on Salisbury:
Drinking his Emanation in intoxicating bliss rejoicing in Giant dance
For a Spectre has no Emanation but what he imbibes from decieving
A Victim: Then he becomes her Priest & she his Tabernacle.
And his Oak Grove. till the Victim rend the woven Veil.
In the end of his sleep when Jesus calls him from him his grave

Howling the Victims on the Druid Altars yield their souls
To the stern Warriors: lovely sport the Daughters round their Victims;
Drinking their lives in sweet intoxication, hence arose from Bath
Soft deluding odours, in spiral volutions intricately winding
Over Albions mountains, a feminine indefinite cruel delusion.
Astonishd; terrified & in pain & torment. Sudden they behold
Their own Parent the Emanation of their murderd Enemy
Become their Emanation and their Temple and Tabernacle
They knew not, this Vala was their beloved Mother Vala Albions Wife.

Terrified at the sight of the Victim: at his distorted sinews!
The tremblings of Vala vibrate thro' the limbs of Albions Sons:
While they rejoice over Luvah in mockery & bitter scorn:
Sudden they become like what they behold in howlings & deadly pain
Spasms smite their features, sinews & limbs: pale they look on one another.
They turn, contorted: their iron necks bend unwilling towards
Luvah: their lips tremble: their muscular fibres are crampd & smitten
They become like what they behold! Yet immense in strength & power, 

Plate 65: Analysis.

To decide Two Worlds with a great decision: a World of Mercy. and
A World of Justice: the World of Mercy for Salvation
To cast Luvah into the Wrath. and Albion into the Pity
In the Two Contraries of Humanity & in the Four Regions.

1-4

The "Two Worlds" are "a World of Mercy and/A World of Justice: the World of Mercy for Salvation". The daughters weave the constituent matter of Albion's interiority into a parody of God's salvic economy: "To cast Luvah into the Wrath and Albion into the Pity".

In this reversed vortex of the world of Generation sexual chaos is being transformed into generative coherence, and all perceptual states consequently wholly intend toward sexuality. Luvah is Albion's component zoa of passion. Wrath and pity seem for Blake to be the debased dynamic between the inadequate component, Luvah, and the self-adoring whole, Albion. The division seems a perversion of the unity of knowledge and love in God. Under Albion, mercy and justice are illusionary. In principle, mercy and justice are involved in the one process of forgiveness. The swing of Los' hammer unites the separation between justice and mercy in forgiveness. Blake's myth of redemption rests on the keystone of mutual forgiveness in knowledge and love in imitation of the Divine typos of Christ.

However, here, Luvah, emptied of love and mercy, is cast into the ‘furnace' of rage, while Albion, emptied of passion and loving commitment, is cast into the elitist, emotionally impotent formlessness of "Pity". They do not yet have the capacity for mutual forgiveness.

The daughters seek to infuse their woven forms of blood, birth and death throughout the "Two Contraries of Humanity" and throughout the "Four Regions" of the zoas and their four, fourfold domains. The organisation of the zoas is collapsed; their energies are displaced and manifest themselves in violent cravings for control of all potency.

For in the depths of Albions bosom in the eastern heaven,
They sound the clarions strong! they chain the howling Captives:
They cast the lots into the helmet: they give the oath of blood in Lambeth
They vote the death of Luvah, & they naild him to Albions Tree in Bath:
They staind him with poisonous blue, they inwove him in cruel roots
To die a death of Six thousand years bound round with vegetation
The sun was black & the moon rolld a useless globe thro Britain:

5-11

In Blake's geographical co-ordinates, Luvah had displaced Urizen: " Luvah assumed the World of Urizen Southward" and "All fell toward the Center, sinking downwards in dire ruin" (3: 59; 15-17). This reversal of Albion's emotional and rational energies is symbolised by the usurpation by Luvah at the centre of Urizen's place in the zenith, as he, in turn, seeks to conquer the centre. The impact of each distorts the other; Luvah is inverted into war and self-predation, and Urizen into war and its intellectual and moral self-contradictions.

Thus, "in the depths of Albion's bosom in the eastern heaven" or ruined centre, the daughters of Albion "sound the clarions", "chain the howling captive", "cast lots into the helmet" "give the oath of blood in Lambeth" (or east/centre), "vote the death of Luvah" and then "naild him to Albion's Tree in Bath" (or west/circumference). Christ revealed to Jerusalem he is bound "down upon the Stems of Vegetation" in his self-sacrifice, and his suffering embraces and transcends Luvah's suffering within space and time (3: 60; 11).

Luvah's mundane sacrifice is an event common to all four of Blake's worlds. It is the consequence of Albion's attempt to be God. It is a failed parody of Christ's kenosis. The Divine presence always without and within, freely self-manifests in each world to save it: in Ulro, into the furnace; in Eden, into non-entity; and here, in Generation, Christ is born as human and Divine; he is bound upon the stems of vegetation, assumes the suffering, creates the limits that will be cast off, reverses the vortex of the fall, and forgives and resurrects to eternal life.

Within, Luvah's energies must fertilise the fabric of Generation for he is the component energy and only source within Albion. For Blake, throughout, human self-predation is symbolised by druidic/male and fertility/female sacrifices. Thus, Albion's component energy, Luvah, is "Staind" with "poisonous blue" by the daughters and "they inwove him in cruel roots/To die a death of Six thousand years bound round with vegetation", beneath a "black" sun and a moon that "rolld a useless globe" of infertility "thro' Britain".

Luvah is continually drained of potency during six thousand years of the eight thousand five hundred years of the time-space continuum drawn by Erin. These time line are discussed below, here, his drained energy engenders a self-devouring process of being and will be distilled into the mundane vintage. I hope to show this mundane vintage fills the cup of Rahab.

Then left the Sons of Urizen the plow & harrow, the loom
The hammer & the chisel, & the rule & compasses; from London fleeing
They forg'd the sword on Cheviot, the chariot of war & the battle-ax,
The trumpet fitted to mortal battle, & the flute of summer in Annandale
And all the Arts of Life, they changd into the Arts of Death in Albion.

12-16

The displacement of centre/zenith zoa energies is described above. On Albion's centre opening, the energies of Luvah enflame outwards to usurp the zenith. Under Luvah's enflamed influence the "Sons of Urizen" react with irrational violence. They "left" left simple craftsmanship, and the implements designed for creative work in dignity: the "plow & harrow, the loom/The Hammer & the chisel & the rule & compasses" (zoa and emanation use all of these implements) and they made war. Now, the rational faculties of Albion, the sons of Urizen, design instruments for war, even music becomes enflamed: "And all the Arts of Life they changed into the Arts of Death in Albion".

The hour-glass contemnd because its simple workmanship,
Was like the workmanship of the plowman, & the water wheel,
That raises water into cisterns broken & burnd with fire:
Because its workmanship, was like the workmanship of the shepherd,
And in their stead, intricate wheels invented, wheel without wheel:
To perplex youth in their outgoings, & to bind to labours in Albion
Of day & night the myriads of eternity that they may grind
And polish brass & iron hour after hour laborious task;
Kept ignorant of its use, that they might spend the days of wisdom
In sorrowful drudgery, to obtain a scanty pittance of bread:
In ignorance to view a small portion & think that All.
And call it Demonstration: blind to all the simple rules of life.

17-28

The "hour-glass", "water wheel" and the like are broken "because" their "simple workmanship/Was like the workmanship of the shepherd". For Blake, economic mass-production replaces the craft idyll: "in their stead, intricate wheels invented, wheel without wheel". Blake's symbolism of the wheel in the finite and infinite is consistent throughout, as noted. Here, Blake relates its turning force and directed energy to economic production, and, to him, the forms of dehumanisation the complex regulation and control of human labour for profit and power entails. In short, Blake describes the simony driving the industrial revolution as the product of Albion's inverted insights.

Urizen's rational energies build this parody of work for the human form Divine: perplexed and bound "to labours in Albion/Of day & night the myriads of eternity" become bound to mindless repetitious labour. They "grind/And polish brass & iron hour after hour, laborious task", yet they are "ignorant of its use" and therefore its purpose, and it follows, of their own spiritual purpose.

Life in Albion's collapsed inner universe lacks the light of spiritual wisdom as intellectual vision is reduced to that of primitive survival in economic bondage. Thus humans "spend the days of wisdom/In sorrowful drudgery" in order to eat: "to obtain a scanty pittance of bread". Their perceptual understandings shrunken and "in ignorance", they "view a small portion & think that all, /And call it Demonstration". Blake's distinction between finite and infinite vision and understanding is consistent: Albion is "blind to all the simple rules of life".

Now: now the battle rages round thy tender limbs O Vala.
Now smile among thy bitter tears: now put on all thy beauty
Is not the wound of the sword sweet: & the broken bone delightful?
Wilt thou now smile among the scythes when the wounded groan in the field
We were carried away in thousands from London; & in tens
Of thousands from Westminster & Marybone in ships closd up:
Chaind hand & foot, compelled to fight under the iron whips
Of our captains; fearing our officers more than the enemy.
Lift up thy blue eyes Vala & put on thy sapphire shoes:
O melancholy Magdalen behold the morning over Malden break:
Gird on thy flaming zone, descend into the sepulcher of Canterbury.
Scatter the blood from thy golden brow, the tears from thy silver locks:
Shake off the waters from thy wings! & the dust from thy white garments
Remember all thy feigned terrors on the secret couch of Lambeths Vale
When the sun rose in glowing morn. with arms of mighty hosts
Marching to battle who was wont to rise with Urizens harps
Girt as a sower with his seed to scatter life abroad over Albion!
Arise O Vala: bring the bow of Urizen: bring the swift arrows of light.
How rag'd the golden horses of Urizen, compelld to the chariot of love!
Compelld to leave the plow to the ox, to snuff up the winds of desolation
To trample the corn fields in boastful neighings: this is no gentle harp
This is no warbling brook, nor shadow of a mirtle tree:
But blood and wounds and dismal cries and shadows of the oak:
And hearts laid open to the light, by the broad grizly sword:
And bowels hid in hammerd steel rip'd quivering on the ground.
Call forth thy smiles of soft deceit: call forth thy cloudy tears:
We hear thy sighs in trumpets shrill when morn shall blood renew.

29-55

At this point Luvah has displaced Urizen, and his spectre is assimilated with Vala, who rules life and death. The daughters of Albion have woven life/blood energies through life in Generation. Now the sons of Albion, in reciprocity, seek to draw the life potencies into themselves. Their energies focus on the centre where the forms of Luvah and Vala are taking shape. The sons of Albion describe the inflamed influence of Vala, for she is the centre of attraction for finite passion.

Life in Generation is not perceptually able to respond in fullness to Divine love. Yet the vortex is reversed and beauty does lift carnage into the quasi-sublime, emotionally sadistic love object of a Helen, or a chivalric court of love. The "battle rages round" Vala's "tender limbs", she smiles among her "bitter tears", puts on "all her beauty" and finds suffering and pain joyous for the war is inspired by her, to possess her and fertilise her. The sons of Albion call on her to put on her "sapphire shoes" as their "melancholy Magdalen", and "descend into the sepulchre of Canterbury" in a parody of the resurrection, and "Remember all" her "feigned terrors on the secret couch of Lambeth's Vale" when she assumed sexual power over finite fertility.

Around her are the enflamed energies of Urizen, whose intentionality is overwhelmed by Luvah' intensities. The "golden horses of Urizen" are "compelld" to draw "the chariot of love", to "snuff up the winds of desolation", to "trample the cornfields in boastful neighing" and thus serve the ends of passion. These are now irrational forms of desire.

The war causes terrible suffering, the pseudo-glory of war and conquest covering over the "blood and wounds and dismal cries", the "hearts laid open", and "bowels laid open". This calls "forth" her "smiles of soft deceit" and "cloudy tears", for the "morn shall blood renew" the daily slaughters of sexual predation, that for Blake, seems the real motive for war.

So sang the Spectre Sons of Albion round Luvahs Stone of Trial:
Mocking and deriding at the writhings of their Victim on Salisbury:
Drinking his Emanation in intoxicating bliss rejoicing in Giant dance
For a Spectre has no Emanation but what he imbibes from decieving
A Victim: Then he becomes her Priest & she his Tabernacle.
And his Oak Grove. till the Victim rend the woven Veil.
In the end of his sleep when Jesus calls him from him his grave

56-62

Luvah's stone is at the centre of Generation. There are four such stone/rocks. They represent the most condensed extreme possible in each of the four worlds: London stone for Los' ruined prophetic centre, Bohan for Rueben and the shrunken human form, Luvah's stone, here, for the pseudo-sacrifice of the druid altar, and the rock of ages for Albion's collapsed body in Beulah, give the four stones points in the four worlds. Each represents a point of condensed stasis of form.

The "Spectre Sons of Albion" sing their account " round Luvahs Stone of Trial" where the druidic moral law' of fertility and power are expressed by sacrifice and execution: "Mocking and deriding at the writhings of their Victim on Salisbury". With the sons are their sisters, the daughters of Albion. Their parents are Albion, and his wife Vala. The self-predation will continue until self-consumed, exhausted and self-emptied of life energy, the limits of inverted generation, Adam and Satan, are formed and cast out.

Here the sons and daughters are reciprocally opposed in inflamed states of morally blind ecstasy; a pseudo-love of life, that in spiritual truth is negation. The sons drain the feminine potencies of their "Victim" to empower their potency, "Drinking his Emanation in intoxicating bliss". As spectre, this perversion of the vintage is the only source of life-blood nourishment in Generation: the "Spectre has no Emanation but what he imbibes from deceiving/A Victim". In an inverted parody of the energy forms and structures of being in the infinite, he "becomes Her priest & she his Tabernacle/And his Oak Grove" in the druidic forests. The usurpation of the tabernacle from Jerusalem in the infinite by Vala in the finite is an event common to all four worlds and their vortices. As Albion draws Jerusalem's energies within, he forces her to become subordinate to his component Vala.

Yet, in Blake's vision, error is taking form because God's salvic economy through the incarnation has revealed eternal life and the vortex reversed. The "Victim" or the human form Divine in the world of Generation will "rend the woven Veil/In the end of his sleep when Jesus calls him from the grave".

Howling the Victims on the Druid Altars yield their souls
To the stern Warriors: lovely sport the Daughters round their Victims;
Drinking their lives in sweet intoxication, hence arose from Bath
Soft deluding odours, in spiral volutions intricately winding
Over Albions mountains, a feminine indefinite cruel delusion.
Astonishd; terrified & in pain & torment. Sudden they behold
Their own Parent the Emanation of their murderd Enemy
Become their Emanation and their Temple and Tabernacle
They knew not, this Vala was their beloved Mother Vala Albions Wife.

63-71

The "Victims on the Druid altars yield their souls" to the sons of Albion, the daughters however, in "lovely sport" drink "their lives in sweet intoxication". Because, as noted, Jerusalem gives the souls and Vala the bodies in finitude, here the sons drink the souls and the daughters torture the forms of life in Generation. They are separated into the extremities of their bonded sexuality. The tortured Luvah on the altars is bound and drained of his energies; by contrast Vala is formless: "a feminine indefinite cruel delusion" of life, in her extremity seeming to be the essence drawn out of the sacrificed Luvah.

They can therefore "behold/Their own Parent the Emanation of their murderd Enemy/Become their Emanation and their Temple and Tabernacle". Isolated and indefinite, the feminine component energy coalesces into the seemingly secret/sacred mystery of fertility and life and death. The sacrifice does bond. However, the sons and daughters are unable to comprehend the generative process. Their emotional life of recognition, identity, love even sexual and primal memory, is truncated: "They knew not this Vala was their belovd Mother Vala Albion's Wife".

Terrified at the sight of the Victim: at his distorted sinews!
The tremblings of Vala vibrate thro' the limbs of Albions Sons:
While they rejoice over Luvah in mockery & bitter scorn:
Sudden they become like what they behold in howlings & deadly pain
Spasms smite their features, sinews & limbs: pale they look on one another.
They turn, contorted: their iron necks bend unwilling towards
Luvah: their lips tremble: their muscular fibres are crampd & smitten
They become like what they behold! Yet immense in strength & power,

72-79

The "mingling cries of Luvah with the sons of Albion", when "the Punisher/Mingles with his Victims Spectre", occurred on Albion's collapse upon the rock of ages in Chapter 2 (2: 47; 12-15).

Here, in the vortex of the world of Generation, the sons of Albion are become shaped into the tortured forms of their victim, for "The tremblings of Vala vibrate thro' the limbs of Albions Sons". Her formative energies define their physical possibilities and, returning to their only source, their victim, Luvah, "they become like what they behold in howlings & deadly pain": struck by "spasms" and "contorted; their iron necks bend unwilling to Luvah". They retain, in finite context, their "immense strength & power".